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The basic principle of Nanjing Ning Bo spectrum analyzer

Writer:公司Source:公司 Number of visits: Date:2016-6-16
First, the generation of atomic spectrum
Atomic emission spectrometric analysis is based on the atomic emission spectrum to determine the chemical composition of the material. Different materials are made up of atoms of different elements, and the atoms all contain a compact structure of the nucleus. Each electron is at a certain level, and has a certain energy. In the normal condition, the atom is in a steady state, its energy is the lowest, which is called the ground state. But when the atoms are energy, such as heat energy, electric energy, atomic due to the speed of gas particle and the electron collision energy, atoms in the outer layers of the electronic transitions from the ground state to the higher level, in the state of the atom that excited state. Electronic energy from the ground state to the excited state required said to inspire potential, when the additional energy is large enough, the atomic electrons from the binding force of the atomic nucleus, the atom becomes ion. This process is called ionization. The energy needed to lose an electron to an ion is called the first ionization potential. The outer electrons in the ion can also be excited, and the required energy is the excitation potential of the corresponding ion. A excited atom is very unstable, in a very short period of time will transition to the ground state or other lower level.
When the atoms from the higher energy level transition to the ground state or other lower level in might be released from the excess energy. This energy is in a certain wavelength of the electromagnetic wave radiated by the out, the radiation energy available type said: (1) E2, E1, respectively in the high level and low level of energy, h is Planck constant; V and lambda were emitted electromagnetic wave frequency and wavelength C the speed of light in a vacuum.
The wavelength of the spectral line emitted by each one depends on the difference between the two levels of the transition. Because many of the atoms, atomic after being excited, the outer electrons can have different transition, but these transitions should follow certain rules (i.e. "spectral selection rule"). Therefore, the atoms of a particular element can produce a series of different wavelengths of characteristic spectral lines, these lines are arranged in a certain order, and keep a certain proportion of the strength. Spectral analysis is from the characteristic spectrum of the identification of these elements to identify elements (qualitative analysis), and the strength of the spectral lines is also related with the content of the element in the sample, so they can be using these spectral line is determined from the intensity of the element content (quantitative analysis). This is the basis of emission spectrum analysis.
Two, the process of emission spectrum analysis
1 the sample is evaporated and converted into a gas atom under the action of the energy, and the outer electrons of the gas atoms can be excited to the highest state. When the transition from the higher level to the lower energy level, the atom will release the excess energy and emit the characteristic spectral line. This process is called evaporation, atomization and excitation, and it is necessary to use the excitation light source to achieve.
2 the radiation produced by the atom is divided into light, which is recorded on the photographic plate in the order of wavelength. With the aid of the spectrum and detection device of the spectrum instrument.
3 qualitative analysis or quantitative analysis based on the obtained spectra. Because of the difference of the atomic structure of different elements, when after being excited emission wavelengths of spectral lines are not the same, namely each element have the characteristics of wavelength, so according to the characteristic spectra of these elements can accurately identify elements (qualitative analysis), and these spectral line intensity and with the content of the element in the sample with the relevant, so they can be using these spectral line is determined from the intensity of the element content (quantitative analysis).
Nanjing Ning Bo Analytical Instrument Co., Ltd.
2016.06.16

TypeInfo: Industrial News

Keywords for the information:Spectrum analyzer